Hydrochlorothiazide vs chlorthalidone, indapamide, and potassium-sparing/hydrochlorothiazide diuretics for reducing left ventricular hypertrophy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

George C. Roush, Ramy Abdelfattah, Steven Song, Michael E. Ernst, Domenic A. Sica, John Kostis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Left ventricular hypertrophy develops in 36%-41% of hypertensive patients and independently predicts cardiovascular events and total mortality. Moreover, drug-induced reduction in left ventricular mass (LVM) correlates with improved prognosis. The optimal thiazide-type diuretic for reducing LVM is unknown. Evidence regarding potency, cardiovascular events, sodium, and potassium suggested the hypothesis that “CHIP” diuretics (CHlorthalidone, Indapamide, and Potassium-sparing diuretic/hydrochlorothiazide [PSD/HCTZ]) would reduce LVM more than HCTZ. Systematic searches of five databases were conducted. Among the 38 randomized trials, a 1% reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) predicted a 1% reduction in LVM, P = 0.00001. CHIP-HCTZ differences in reducing LVM differed across trials (ie, heterogeneity), making interpretation uncertain. However, among the 28 double-blind trials, heterogeneity was undetectable, and HCTZ reduced LVM (percent reduction [95% CI]) by −7.3 (−10.4, −4.2), P < 0.0001. CHIP diuretics surpassed HCTZ in reducing LVM: chlorthalidone −8.2 (−14.7, −1.6), P = 0.015; indapamide −7.5 (−12.7, −2.3), P = 0.005; and all CHIP diuretics combined −7.7 (−12.2, −3.1), P < 0.001. The comparison of PSD/HCTZ with HCTZ had low statistical power but favored PSD/HCTZ: −6.0 (−14.1, +2.1), P = 0.149. Thus, compared to HCTZ, CHIP diuretics had twice the effect on LVM. CHIP diuretics did not surpass HCTZ in reducing systolic or diastolic blood pressure: −0.3 (−5.0, +4.3) and −1.6 (−5.6, +2.4), respectively. The strength of evidence that CHIP diuretics surpass HCTZ for reducing LVM was high (GRADE criteria). In conclusion, these novel results have demonstrated that CHIP diuretics reduce LVM 2-fold more than HCTZ among hypertensive patients. Although generally related to LVM, blood pressure fails to explain the superiority of CHIP diuretics for reducing LVM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1507-1515
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Hypertension
Volume20
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Keywords

  • chlorthalidone
  • diuretics, thiazide
  • hydrochlorothiazide
  • indapamide
  • left ventricular hypertrophy
  • potassium-sparing diuretic

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