Background/objectives: While outcomes for pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) are favorable, there are few widely accepted prognostic factors, limiting the ability to risk stratify therapy. Design/methods: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) Protocols 05-001 and 11-001 enrolled pediatric patients with newly diagnosed B- or T-ALL from 2005 to 2011 and from 2012 to 2015, respectively. Protocol therapy was nearly identical for patients with T-ALL (N = 123), who were all initially assigned to the high-risk arm. End-induction minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or next-generation sequencing (NGS), but was not used to modify postinduction therapy. Early T-cell precursor (ETP) status was determined by flow cytometry. Cases with sufficient diagnostic DNA were retrospectively evaluated by targeted NGS of known genetic drivers of T-ALL, including Notch, PI3K, and Ras pathway genes. Results: The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with T-ALL was 81% (95% CI, 73-87%) and 90% (95% CI, 83-94%), respectively. ETP phenotype was associated with failure to achieve complete remission, but not with inferior OS. Low end-induction MRD (<10−4) was associated with superior disease-free survival (DFS). Pathogenic mutations of the PI3K pathway were mutually exclusive of ETP phenotype and were associated with inferior 5-year DFS and OS. Conclusions: Together, our findings demonstrate that ETP phenotype, end-induction MRD, and PI3K pathway mutation status are prognostically relevant in pediatric T-ALL and should be considered for risk classification in future trials. DFCI Protocols 05-001 and 11-001 are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00165087 and NCT01574274, respectively.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- clinical trials
- minimal residual disease
- molecular diagnosis and therapy
- pediatric oncology