Mostly newly synthesized soluble lysosomal proteins contain mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P), a specific carbohydrate modification that is recognized by Man-6-P receptors (MPRs) that direct targeting to the lysosome. A number of proteomic studies have focused on lysosomal proteins, exploiting the fact that Man-6-P-containing forms can be purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized MPRs. These studies have identified many known lysosomal proteins as well as many proteins not previously classified as lysosomal. The latter are of considerable biological interest with potential implications for lysosomal function and as candidates for lysosomal storage diseases of unknown etiology. However, a significant problem in interpreting the biological relevance of such proteins has been in distinguishing true Man-6-P glycoproteins from simple contaminants and from proteins associated with true Man-6-P glycoproteins (e.g. protease inhibitors and lectins). In this report, we describe a mass spectrometric approach to the verification of Man-6-phosphorylation based upon LC-MS of MPR-purified proteolytic glycopeptides. This provided a useful tool in validating novel MPR-purified proteins as true Man-6-P glycoproteins and also allowed identification of low abundance components not observed in the analysis of the total Man-6-P glycoprotein mixture. In addition, this approach allowed the global mapping of 99 Man-6-phosphorylation sites from 44 known lysosomal proteins purified from mouse and human brain. This information is likely to provide useful insights into protein determinants for this modification and may be of significant value in protein engineering approaches designed to optimize protein delivery to the lysosome in therapeutic applications such as gene and enzyme replacement therapies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Molecular Biology