Prediction of new drug-target interactions is critically important as it can lead the researchers to find new uses for old drugs and to disclose their therapeutic profiles or side effects. However, experimental prediction of drug-target interactions is expensive and time-consuming. As a result, computational methods for predictioning new drug-target interactions have gained a tremendous interest in recent times. Here we present iDTI-ESBoost, a prediction model for identification of drug-target interactions using evolutionary and structural features. Our proposed method uses a novel data balancing and boosting technique to predict drug-target interaction. On four benchmark datasets taken from a gold standard data, iDTI-ESBoost outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of area under receiver operating characteristic (auROC) curve. iDTI-ESBoost also outperforms the latest and the best-performing method found in the literature in terms of area under precision recall (auPR) curve. This is significant as auPR curves are argued as suitable metric for comparison for imbalanced datasets similar to the one studied here. Our reported results show the effectiveness of the classifier, balancing methods and the novel features incorporated in iDTI-ESBoost. iDTI-ESBoost is a novel prediction method that has for the first time exploited the structural features along with the evolutionary features to predict drug-protein interactions. We believe the excellent performance of iDTI-ESBoost both in terms of auROC and auPR would motivate the researchers and practitioners to use it to predict drug-target interactions. To facilitate that, iDTI-ESBoost is implemented and made publicly available at: http://farshidrayhan.pythonanywhere.com/iDTI-ESBoost/.
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