In vitro implementation of robust gene regulation in a synthetic biomolecular integral controller

Deepak K. Agrawal, Ryan Marshall, Vincent Noireaux, Eduardo D. Sontag

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Feedback mechanisms play a critical role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties. Motivated by the need to tune the dynamics and improve the robustness of gene circuits, biological engineers have proposed various designs that mimic natural molecular feedback control mechanisms. However, practical and predictable implementations have proved challenging because of the complexity of synthesis and analysis of complex biomolecular networks. Here, we analyze and experimentally validate a synthetic biomolecular controller executed in vitro. The controller ensures that gene expression rate tracks an externally imposed reference level, and achieves this goal even in the presence of certain kinds of disturbances. Our design relies upon an analog of the well-known principle of integral feedback in control theory. We implement the controller in an Escherichia coli cell-free transcription-translation system, which allows rapid prototyping and implementation. Modeling and theory guide experimental implementation with well-defined operational predictability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5760
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'In vitro implementation of robust gene regulation in a synthetic biomolecular integral controller'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this