Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is highest in sub-Saharan Africa and results in accelerated clinical outcomes compared with HBV or HIV mono-infection. HBV clearance rates are higher in healthy adults; however, in sub-Saharan Africa, there are limited data on clearance of incident HBV in HIV-infected adults. Therefore, we sought to estimate HBV incidence and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance in HIV-infected adults in Botswana.This was a retrospective longitudinal study of 442 HIV-1C infected treatment naïve patients enrolled in a previous Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership study. Archived plasma samples from 435 HIV-infected treatment naïve participants were screened for HBsAg and HBV core antibody (anti-HBc). HBsAg was evaluated annually over a 4-year period, and HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) levels of HBsAg-positive chronic and incident patients were quantified.Baseline median CD4+ T-cell count was 458cells/μL [Q1, Q3: 373, 593], and median HIV viral load was 4.15copies/mL [Q1, Q3: 3.46, 4.64]. Twenty two HBV incident cases occurred, representing an incidence of 3.6/100 person-years [95% CI: 2.2-5.6]. All incident HBV cases with a follow-up sample available for screening (13/22) cleared HBsAg. Detectable HBV viral loads among chronic and incident cases ranged between 5.15×101 to 1.4×107IU/L and 1.80×101 to 1.7×108IU/mL, respectively.We report high HBV incidence associated with elevated HBV DNA levels despite high CD4+ T-cell counts in HIV-infected patients in Botswana. These incidence cases represent a potential source of HBV transmission in the population. Scaling-up of HIV treatment strategies utilizing antiretroviral therapy regimens with anti-HBV activity coupled with screening for HBV infections in households of the HBsAg-positive cases is recommended.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Sub-Saharan Africa
- hepatitis B virus
- hepatitis B virus incidence
- human immunodeficiency virus