Inclusion of disabled children and school reform: A historical perspective

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Over the past three decades, special and general education have undergone dramatic philosophical and structural changes. The mission of special and general education and the roles and responsibilities of school personnel have become increasingly blurred. The inclusion movement has captivated the interest of scholars, educators, politicians and the public alike. This paper reviews the major historical and current socio-political, legal, and professional forces that have led to the inclusion movement and national educational reform initiatives (e.g., Goals 2000, IASA, IDEA) in America, Psychologists assume significant leadership roles in the refinement and implementation of inclusion models and national reform initiatives. The expertise and contributions of psychologists to this movement are outlined. Critical issues and unanswered questions are presented to stimulate future research and debate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInclusion Practices with Special Needs Students
Subtitle of host publicationEducation, Training, and Application
PublisherTaylor and Francis Inc.
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9781317789413
ISBN (Print)9780789008435
StatePublished - Jan 2 2014
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Social Sciences


  • History of inclusion
  • Inclusion movement
  • Least restrictive environment
  • Legal and political factors
  • Trends


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