The addition of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) to standard graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis following haploidentical blood stem transplants has resulted in relatively low rates of GVHD. As GVHD remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving transplants from matched donors, we began to use PTCy in all blood stem cell transplants in 2016 and compared our recent experience with PTCy after matched sibling and unrelated donor transplants (N = 49) to the earlier 2-year period (N = 41) when PTCy was not used. Endpoints included graft-versus-host, relapse-free-survival (GRFS), overall survival, non-relapse mortality, and percentage of patients disease-free and off immunosuppression (DFOI) at 1 year and at the last follow-up. The difference in GRFS between the standard and the PTCy cohort was not statistically significant. There was a statistically improved relapse-free and overall survival in the PTCY cohort that was due to a significant decrease in non-relapse mortality secondary to GVHD. There was also a borderline statistically improved DFOI at 1 year and at last follow-up in the PTCY group. These results suggest that PTCy after HLA-matched transplants provides at least comparable efficacy to other GVHD strategies and may allow more frequent discontinuation of immunosuppression.
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