Ineffective perfusion-contraction matching in conscious, chronically instrumented pigs with an extended period of coronary stenosis

Raymond K. Kudej, Bijan Ghaleh, Naoki Sato, You Tang Shen, Sanford P. Bishop, Stephen F. Vatner

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47 Scopus citations


Several models purported to represent hibernating myocardium involve a coronary stenosis (CS) to reduce blood flow (BF) and function without eliciting necrosis in anesthetized pigs. The goal of the present study was to determine whether sustained moderate reduction in coronary BF in conscious pigs induced hibernating myocardium, ie, perfusion-contraction matching with no necrosis. These experiments were conducted in conscious pigs chronically instrumented with a coronary artery BF probe and hydraulic occluder, left ventricular (LV) pressure gauge, and wall thickening (WT) crystals in the potentially ischemic and nonischemic zones. The hydraulic occluder was inflated to induce a stable 41±4% reduction in BF for 24 hours. Ischemic zone systolic WT fell initially with CS and then continued to decline during the period of CS even though blood flow did not change further, suggesting the induction of myocardial stunning. At 2 days after release of CS, WT was still depressed by 48±15%. Assessment of necrosis by histology or triphenyltetrazolium chloride showed 40±5% multifocal patchy necrosis interspersed with normal tissue involving the inner one third to one half of the ventricular wall. Regional myocardial BF (radioactive microsphere technique) was assessed by dividing the entire LV into an average of 488±59 pieces and examining the spatial distribution of BF within the area at risk (AAR). BF in the samples in the area of patchy necrosis was reduced (-66±4% from a baseline of 1.55±0.27 mL·min-1·g-1), whereas BF was maintained in samples in the AAR without necrosis (-2±7% from a baseline of 1.25±0.22 mL·min-1·g-1). These findings indicate that when hypoperfusion induced by CS in conscious pigs is sustained, the result is necrosis rather than hibernating myocardium. The remainder of the AAR, which lacked necrosis, might have been mistaken for hibernating myocardium had only histology been evaluated and BF not been measured and found to be at normal levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1199-1205
Number of pages7
JournalCirculation research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 15 1998
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


  • Coronary artery disease
  • Coronary blood flow
  • Hibernating myocardium
  • Myocardial ischemia
  • Myocardial stunning

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