Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation Among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment

Nina A. Cooperman, Shou En Lu, Kimber P. Richter, Steven L. Bernstein, Jill M. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Methods: Participants (N = 116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Results: Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall, narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of.76, 95% CI [0.66, 0.85]) and ever making a quit attempt or not (C-statistic of.79, 95% CI [0.70, 0.88]). Conclusions: Compared to existing treatments, smoking cessation treatments that can be tailored to address the individual needs of people with specific psychiatric disorders or personality disorder traits may better help those in opiate dependence treatment to set a cessation goal, attempt to quit, and eventually quit smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)118-128
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Dual Diagnosis
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


  • Smoking
  • cessation goal
  • drug treatment
  • methadone
  • opiate
  • personality disorders
  • psychiatric disorders
  • quit attempt


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