Inhibition of growth and metastasis of mouse mammary carcinoma by selective inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor kinase in vivo.

Rongrong Ge, Vaishali Rajeev, Partha Ray, Edmund Lattime, Susan Rittling, Satya Medicherla, Andy Protter, Alison Murphy, Jit Chakravarty, Sundeep Dugar, George Schreiner, Nicola Barnard, Michael Reiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

127 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) suppresses tumor development by inhibiting cellular proliferation, inducing differentiation and apoptosis, and maintaining genomic integrity. However, once tumor cells escape from the tumor-suppressive effects of TGF-beta, they often constitutively overexpress and activate TGF-beta, which may promote tumor progression by enhancing invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis and by suppressing antitumor immunity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis using TGF-beta pathway antagonists. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the effects of selective TGF-beta type I receptor kinase inhibitors, SD-093 and SD-208, on two murine mammary carcinoma cell lines (R3T and 4T1) in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Both agents blocked TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of the receptor-associated Smads, Smad2 and Smad3, in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 between 20 and 80 nmol/L. TGF-beta failed to inhibit growth of these cell lines but stimulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation, migration, and invasiveness into Matrigel in vitro. These effects were inhibited by SD-093, indicating that these processes are partly driven by TGF-beta. Treatment of syngeneic R3T or 4T1 tumor-bearing mice with orally given SD-208 inhibited primary tumor growth as well as the number and size of metastases. In contrast, SD-208 failed to inhibit R3T tumor growth or metastasis in athymic nude mice. Moreover, in vitro anti-4T1 cell cytotoxic T-cell responses of splenocytes from drug-treated animals were enhanced compared with cells from control animals. In addition, SD-208 treatment resulted in a decrease in tumor angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: TGF-beta type I receptor kinase inhibitors hold promise as novel therapeutic agents for metastatic breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4315-4330
Number of pages16
JournalClinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Issue number14 Pt 1
StatePublished - Jul 15 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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