Inhibition of neurite outgrowth of neuroblastoma neuro-2a cells by cholera toxin B-subunit and anti-GM1 antibody

Gusheng Wu, Kazuo Nakamura, Robert W. Ledeen

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19 Scopus citations


The role of cell surface GM1 ganglioside in neurite outgrowth of Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells was investigated by application of anti-GM1 antibody and the B subunit of cholera toxin (cholera B) to cultured cells stimulated to grow neurites in various ways. When the cells were simultaneously treated with stimulatory agent and cholera B, inhibition, as measured by percent of neurite-bearing cells, was observed with most stimuli: neuraminidase; GD1a ganglioside, retinoic acid, and low serum. However, with dibutyryl cyclic AMP the small reduction observed was not statistically significant. The inhibitory effect of cholera B on neurite outgrowth induced by low serum was dose-dependent, reaching a maximum at 200 ng/mL; 48 h after washout of cholera B the cells were released from inhibition and regrew neurites at nearly the previous rate in the presence of low serum. When the cells were exposed to stimulus for 6 h or more the inhibitory effect of subsequent addition of cholera B was reduced or eliminated; inhibition thus occurs during an early stage of neurite initiation. Anti-GM1 anti-body at dilutions of 1:100-1:400 had the same inhibitory effect as cholera B with cells stimulated by GD1a or retinoic acid, whereas anti-GM2 antibody had no effect at 1:200 or 1:400; inhibition by the latter antibody at 1:100 dilution was similar to that attained with control ascites fluid. These results point to a pivotal role for cell surface GM1 in Neuro-2a differentiation induced by many (but not all) neuritogenic agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-271
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular and Chemical Neuropathology
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Feb 1994

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Neurology


  • Anti-GM1 anti-body
  • GD1a
  • GM1
  • GM2
  • Gangliosides
  • Neuro-2a neuroblastoma
  • cholera toxin B subunit
  • dibutyryl cAMP
  • neuraminidase
  • neuritogenesis
  • retinoic acid


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