Treatment of cultured PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and BxPC-3 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells with 0.1 to 1.6 nM 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 96 h inhibited the proliferation of these cells in a dose-dependent manner, and PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells were more sensitive to TPA than BxPC-3 cells. Inhibition of proliferation by TPA in PANC-1 cells was associated with an increase in the level of p21, but this was not observed in MIA PaCa-2 or BxPC-3 cells. The TPA-induced increase of p21 in PANC-1 cells was blocked by bisindolylmaleimide or rottlerin (inhibitors of protein kinase C). Studies in NCr-immunodeficient mice with well established PANC-1 tumor xenografts indicated that daily i.p. injections of TPA strongly inhibited tumor growth, increased the percentage of caspase-3-positive cells, and decreased the ratio of mitotic cells to caspase-3-positive cells in the tumors. Studies with BxPC-3 tumors in NCr mice receiving daily i.p. injections of vehicle, TPA, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), or a TPA/ATRA combination showed that TPA had an inhibitory effect on tumor growth, but treatment of the animals with the TPA/ATRA combination had a greater inhibitory effect on tumor growth than TPA alone. Treatment with the TPA/ATRA combination resulted in a substantially decreased ratio of the percentage of mitotic cells to the percentage of caspase-3-positive cells in the tumors compared with tumors from the vehicle-treated control animals. The inhibitory effects of TPA on tumor growth occurred at clinically achievable blood levels.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||18|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2005|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine