Insights into fluency instruction: Short- and long-term effects of two reading programs

Paula J. Schwanenflugel, Melanie R. Kuhn, Robin D. Morris, Lesley Mandel Morrow, Elizabeth B. Meisinger, Deborah Gee Woo, Matthew Quirk, Rose Sevcik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


The purpose of the study was to examine short- and long-term effects of two instructional approaches designed to improve the reading fluency of second-grade children: Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (or FORI; Stahl & Heubach, 2005) and a wide reading approach (Kuhn et al., 2006). By the end of second grade, children in the wide reading classrooms showed better fluency and self-concept compared to children in control classrooms. Classroom observations indicated children in FORI classrooms were more likely to be off-task than controls. However, by the end of third grade, children in both programs displayed better comprehension. We conclude that extensive and long-term focus on the oral reading of complex texts using practices that scaffold reading in second grade is beneficial for the long-term development of reading comprehension skills.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)318-336
Number of pages19
JournalLiteracy Research and Instruction
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language


  • Instruction
  • Oral reading
  • Reading comprehension
  • Reading fluency
  • Self-concept


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