Insights into protein-protein binding by binding free energy calculation and free energy decomposition for the Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS complexes.

Holger Gohlke, Christina Kiel, David Case

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

703 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Absolute binding free energy calculations and free energy decompositions are presented for the protein-protein complexes H-Ras/C-Raf1 and H-Ras/RalGDS. Ras is a central switch in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. In our study, we investigate the capability of the molecular mechanics (MM)-generalized Born surface area (GBSA) approach to estimate absolute binding free energies for the protein-protein complexes. Averaging gas-phase energies, solvation free energies, and entropic contributions over snapshots extracted from trajectories of the unbound proteins and the complexes, calculated binding free energies (Ras-Raf: -15.0(+/-6.3)kcal mol(-1); Ras-RalGDS: -19.5(+/-5.9)kcal mol(-1)) are in fair agreement with experimentally determined values (-9.6 kcal mol(-1); -8.4 kcal mol(-1)), if appropriate ionic strength is taken into account. Structural determinants of the binding affinity of Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS are identified by means of free energy decomposition. For the first time, computationally inexpensive generalized Born (GB) calculations are applied in this context to partition solvation free energies along with gas-phase energies between residues of both binding partners. For selected residues, in addition, entropic contributions are estimated by classical statistical mechanics. Comparison of the decomposition results with experimentally determined binding free energy differences for alanine mutants of interface residues yielded correlations with r(2)=0.55 and 0.46 for Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS, respectively. Extension of the decomposition reveals residues as far apart as 25A from the binding epitope that can contribute significantly to binding free energy. These "hotspots" are found to show large atomic fluctuations in the unbound proteins, indicating that they reside in structurally less stable regions. Furthermore, hotspot residues experience a significantly larger-than-average decrease in local fluctuations upon complex formation. Finally, by calculating a pair-wise decomposition of interactions, interaction pathways originating in the binding epitope of Raf are found that protrude through the protein structure towards the loop L1. This explains the finding of a conformational change in this region upon complex formation with Ras, and it may trigger a larger structural change in Raf, which is considered to be necessary for activation of the effector by Ras.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)891-913
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of molecular biology
Volume330
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Protein Binding
Proteins
Mechanics
Epitopes
Gases
Alanine
Osmolar Concentration
Cell Differentiation
Cell Proliferation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Structural Biology
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

@article{dd0323e8611a490683ba0afe3e6fd773,
title = "Insights into protein-protein binding by binding free energy calculation and free energy decomposition for the Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS complexes.",
abstract = "Absolute binding free energy calculations and free energy decompositions are presented for the protein-protein complexes H-Ras/C-Raf1 and H-Ras/RalGDS. Ras is a central switch in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. In our study, we investigate the capability of the molecular mechanics (MM)-generalized Born surface area (GBSA) approach to estimate absolute binding free energies for the protein-protein complexes. Averaging gas-phase energies, solvation free energies, and entropic contributions over snapshots extracted from trajectories of the unbound proteins and the complexes, calculated binding free energies (Ras-Raf: -15.0(+/-6.3)kcal mol(-1); Ras-RalGDS: -19.5(+/-5.9)kcal mol(-1)) are in fair agreement with experimentally determined values (-9.6 kcal mol(-1); -8.4 kcal mol(-1)), if appropriate ionic strength is taken into account. Structural determinants of the binding affinity of Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS are identified by means of free energy decomposition. For the first time, computationally inexpensive generalized Born (GB) calculations are applied in this context to partition solvation free energies along with gas-phase energies between residues of both binding partners. For selected residues, in addition, entropic contributions are estimated by classical statistical mechanics. Comparison of the decomposition results with experimentally determined binding free energy differences for alanine mutants of interface residues yielded correlations with r(2)=0.55 and 0.46 for Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS, respectively. Extension of the decomposition reveals residues as far apart as 25A from the binding epitope that can contribute significantly to binding free energy. These {"}hotspots{"} are found to show large atomic fluctuations in the unbound proteins, indicating that they reside in structurally less stable regions. Furthermore, hotspot residues experience a significantly larger-than-average decrease in local fluctuations upon complex formation. Finally, by calculating a pair-wise decomposition of interactions, interaction pathways originating in the binding epitope of Raf are found that protrude through the protein structure towards the loop L1. This explains the finding of a conformational change in this region upon complex formation with Ras, and it may trigger a larger structural change in Raf, which is considered to be necessary for activation of the effector by Ras.",
author = "Holger Gohlke and Christina Kiel and David Case",
year = "2003",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0022-2836(03)00610-7",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "330",
pages = "891--913",
journal = "Journal of Molecular Biology",
issn = "0022-2836",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "4",

}

Insights into protein-protein binding by binding free energy calculation and free energy decomposition for the Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS complexes. / Gohlke, Holger; Kiel, Christina; Case, David.

In: Journal of molecular biology, Vol. 330, No. 4, 01.01.2003, p. 891-913.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Insights into protein-protein binding by binding free energy calculation and free energy decomposition for the Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS complexes.

AU - Gohlke, Holger

AU - Kiel, Christina

AU - Case, David

PY - 2003/1/1

Y1 - 2003/1/1

N2 - Absolute binding free energy calculations and free energy decompositions are presented for the protein-protein complexes H-Ras/C-Raf1 and H-Ras/RalGDS. Ras is a central switch in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. In our study, we investigate the capability of the molecular mechanics (MM)-generalized Born surface area (GBSA) approach to estimate absolute binding free energies for the protein-protein complexes. Averaging gas-phase energies, solvation free energies, and entropic contributions over snapshots extracted from trajectories of the unbound proteins and the complexes, calculated binding free energies (Ras-Raf: -15.0(+/-6.3)kcal mol(-1); Ras-RalGDS: -19.5(+/-5.9)kcal mol(-1)) are in fair agreement with experimentally determined values (-9.6 kcal mol(-1); -8.4 kcal mol(-1)), if appropriate ionic strength is taken into account. Structural determinants of the binding affinity of Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS are identified by means of free energy decomposition. For the first time, computationally inexpensive generalized Born (GB) calculations are applied in this context to partition solvation free energies along with gas-phase energies between residues of both binding partners. For selected residues, in addition, entropic contributions are estimated by classical statistical mechanics. Comparison of the decomposition results with experimentally determined binding free energy differences for alanine mutants of interface residues yielded correlations with r(2)=0.55 and 0.46 for Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS, respectively. Extension of the decomposition reveals residues as far apart as 25A from the binding epitope that can contribute significantly to binding free energy. These "hotspots" are found to show large atomic fluctuations in the unbound proteins, indicating that they reside in structurally less stable regions. Furthermore, hotspot residues experience a significantly larger-than-average decrease in local fluctuations upon complex formation. Finally, by calculating a pair-wise decomposition of interactions, interaction pathways originating in the binding epitope of Raf are found that protrude through the protein structure towards the loop L1. This explains the finding of a conformational change in this region upon complex formation with Ras, and it may trigger a larger structural change in Raf, which is considered to be necessary for activation of the effector by Ras.

AB - Absolute binding free energy calculations and free energy decompositions are presented for the protein-protein complexes H-Ras/C-Raf1 and H-Ras/RalGDS. Ras is a central switch in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. In our study, we investigate the capability of the molecular mechanics (MM)-generalized Born surface area (GBSA) approach to estimate absolute binding free energies for the protein-protein complexes. Averaging gas-phase energies, solvation free energies, and entropic contributions over snapshots extracted from trajectories of the unbound proteins and the complexes, calculated binding free energies (Ras-Raf: -15.0(+/-6.3)kcal mol(-1); Ras-RalGDS: -19.5(+/-5.9)kcal mol(-1)) are in fair agreement with experimentally determined values (-9.6 kcal mol(-1); -8.4 kcal mol(-1)), if appropriate ionic strength is taken into account. Structural determinants of the binding affinity of Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS are identified by means of free energy decomposition. For the first time, computationally inexpensive generalized Born (GB) calculations are applied in this context to partition solvation free energies along with gas-phase energies between residues of both binding partners. For selected residues, in addition, entropic contributions are estimated by classical statistical mechanics. Comparison of the decomposition results with experimentally determined binding free energy differences for alanine mutants of interface residues yielded correlations with r(2)=0.55 and 0.46 for Ras-Raf and Ras-RalGDS, respectively. Extension of the decomposition reveals residues as far apart as 25A from the binding epitope that can contribute significantly to binding free energy. These "hotspots" are found to show large atomic fluctuations in the unbound proteins, indicating that they reside in structurally less stable regions. Furthermore, hotspot residues experience a significantly larger-than-average decrease in local fluctuations upon complex formation. Finally, by calculating a pair-wise decomposition of interactions, interaction pathways originating in the binding epitope of Raf are found that protrude through the protein structure towards the loop L1. This explains the finding of a conformational change in this region upon complex formation with Ras, and it may trigger a larger structural change in Raf, which is considered to be necessary for activation of the effector by Ras.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0043245780&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0043245780&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0022-2836(03)00610-7

DO - 10.1016/S0022-2836(03)00610-7

M3 - Article

C2 - 12850155

AN - SCOPUS:0043245780

VL - 330

SP - 891

EP - 913

JO - Journal of Molecular Biology

JF - Journal of Molecular Biology

SN - 0022-2836

IS - 4

ER -