Intelligent tutoring systems: a history and an example of an ITS for science

Janice D. Gobert, Michael A. Sao Pedro, Haiying Li, Christine Lott

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


In this entry, we define Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and present a description of their core components. We outline a history of the development of ITSs with a focus on key issues that have driven change and innovation in ITSs from their inception to present day. We also present a brief case study on a specific ITS, Inq-ITS (Inquiry Intelligent Tutoring System;, that is currently in use in 50 states in the US as well as many countries globally (12+) for the assessment of students' science competencies, and in turn, scaffolding students' science competencies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Education
Subtitle of host publicationFourth Edition
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780128186299
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Sciences(all)


  • Educational data mining
  • Intelligent tutoring systems
  • Natural language processing
  • Performance assessment
  • Real-time tutoring
  • Scaffolding science inquiry
  • Science inquiry


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