The interaction of the CC-chemokine RANTES with its cell surface receptors transduces multiple intracellular signals: low concentrations of RANTES (1 to 10 nM) stimulate G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activity, and higher concentrations (1 μM) activate a phosphotyrosine kinase (PTK)-dependent pathway. Here, we show that the higher RANTES concentrations induce rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins. Several src-family kinases (Fyn, Hck, Src) are activated, as is the focal adhesion kinase p125 FAK and, eventually, members of the p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. This PTK signaling pathway can be activated independently of known seven-transmembrane GPCRs for RANTES because it occurs in cells that lack any such RANTES receptors. Instead, activation of the PTK signaling pathway is dependent on the expression of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the cell surface, in that it could not be activated by RANTES in GAG-deficient cells. We have previously demonstrated that RANTES can both enhance and inhibit infection of cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here we show that activation of both PTK and MAPK is involved in the enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity caused by RANTES in cells that lack GPCRs for RANTES but which express GAGs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science