International trade warfare: Economic and political strategic considerations

H. Peter Gray, Roy Licklider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


An actor government may seek to change a policy of a target state by exerting an economic toll. Trade warfare can only impose high economic costs on the target if the actor can withhold noncompetitive exports or irreplaceable markets. Economic damage may not be sufficient. Decision-makers in the target will be more concerned with their own benefits and costs than with those of the national economy. Governments seem likely to continue to use economic warfare, despite its weak record of identifiable success, because the measures are valuable as signals to domestic constituencies, the target government and third nations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)563-583
Number of pages21
JournalEuropean Journal of Political Economy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Political Science and International Relations

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