Interspecific and locational differences in metal levels in edible fish tissue from Saudi Arabia

Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Zenon Batang, Nabeel Alikunhi, Ramzi Al-Jahdali, Dalal Al-Jebreen, Mohammed A.M. Aziz, Abdulaziz Al-Suwailem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Metal levels in fish have been extensively studied, but little data currently exists for the Middle East. We examined the levels of metals and metalloids (aluminum, arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, zinc, and mercury) in the flesh of 13 fish species collected from three fishing sites and a local fish market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We tested the following null hypotheses: (1) there are no interspecific differences in metal levels, (2) there are no differences in metal levels in fishes between market and fishing sites, (3) there are no size-related differences in metal levels, and (4) there are no differences in selenium:mercury molar ratio among different fish species. There were significant interspecific differences in concentrations for all metals. There was an order of magnitude difference in the levels of aluminum, arsenic, mercury, manganese, and selenium, indicating wide variation in potential effects on the fish themselves and on their predators. Fishes from Area II, close to a large commercial port, had the highest levels of arsenic, mercury, and selenium, followed by market fishes. Mercury was positively correlated with body size in 6 of the 13 fish species examined. Mercury was correlated positively with arsenic and selenium, but negatively with aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc. Selenium:mercury molar ratios varied significantly among species, with Carangoides bajad, Cephalopholis argus, Variola louti, and Ephinephelus tauvina having ratios below 10:1. These findings can be used in risk assessments, design of mercury reduction plans, development of fish advisories to protect public health, and future management decision-making.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6721-6746
Number of pages26
JournalEnvironmental monitoring and assessment
Volume186
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 6 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Keywords

  • Fish
  • Food chain risk
  • Jeddah
  • Mercury
  • Metals
  • Saudi Arabia

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