Knowledge, reflection, and action

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Our main topic is epistemic agency, which can be either free or unfree. This aligns with a distinction between two sorts of knowledge, the reflective and the animal. We first take up the nature and significance of these two sorts of knowledge, starting with the reflective. In a second section we then consider the nature of suspension and how that relates suspension to higher orders of meta-belief. Finally, we consider a distinction in epistemology between animal competence and reflective justification. All of these topics and distinctions are important for virtue epistemology, in ways to be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)253-265
Number of pages13
JournalCroatian Journal of Philosophy
Issue number45
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Philosophy


  • Animal knowledge
  • Epistemic agency
  • Reflective justification
  • Reflective knowledge
  • Suspension of judgment

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