Life history and habitat use of the speckled worm eel, Myrophis punctatus, along the east coast of the United States

Kenneth W. Able, Dennis M. Allen, Gretchen Bath-Martin, Jonathan A. Hare, Donald E. Hoss, Katrin E. Marancik, Perce M. Powles, David E. Richardson, J. Christopher Taylor, Harvey J. Walsh, Stanley M. Warlen, Charles Wenner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Many species of fishes along the east coast of the United States have complex life histories, especially those that move over hundreds of kilometers across ocean and estuarine habitats. To further unravel the life history of one of these, the speckled worm eel, Myrophis punctatus we examined samples from extensive time series and discrete samples collected in the ocean and estuaries between Florida and Massachusetts. We now surmise spawning occurs between fall and early winter in the ocean south of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina and in the vicinity of the Bahamas. The pelagic leptocephalus larvae (10-80 mm Total Length [TL]) are transported north in the Gulf Stream and across the continental shelf to arrive at estuarine inlets at ages of 53 - 110 days. Their estuarine immigration and abundance varies along the east coast, with higher levels occurring at inlets in South Carolina (North Inlet), and North Carolina (Beaufort Inlet), during the winter and early spring. Much lower abundances occur in New Jersey (Little Egg Inlet) in winter and spring and again in the summer. These ingressing individuals were euryodontic leptocephali and metamorphic stages and were shrinking to lengths of 76-52 mm TL as these stages progressed. Metamorphic individuals and glass eels subsequently settle and burrow in estuarine sediments, as do all subsequent stages, and thereby become relatively unavailable to many sampling gears. In estuaries they attained sizes up to 440 mm TL. Later, they presumably enter the ocean to spawn because that is where the smallest larvae are found.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-259
Number of pages23
JournalEnvironmental Biology of Fishes
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Aquatic Science


  • Leptocephali
  • Life history
  • Metamorphosis
  • Myrophis punctatus
  • Speckled worm eel


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