Linking student self-regulated learning profiles to achievement and engagement in mathematics

Timothy J. Cleary, Jacqueline Slemp, Erica R. Pawlo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The current study identified self-regulated learning (SRL) profiles of middle school students and examined differences among these profiles across classroom engagement and mathematics achievement outcomes. Using student motivational, regulatory, and contextual variables, cluster analysis revealed a four-factor solution as most interpretable. The four clusters varied across two dimensions (i.e., SRL and perceived contextual supports) and levels (i.e., high and low). Students who reported strong SRL skills displayed the most adaptive outcomes, in terms of both classroom engagement and mathematics achievement. The least adaptive profile included students who reported poor SRL skills and who exhibited a weak connection to school and perceived support from teachers. This latter cluster displayed statistically significant lower standardized mathematics achievement scores than all other clusters. Implications and directions for future research are emphasized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)443-457
Number of pages15
JournalPsychology in the Schools
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


  • classroom engagement
  • cluster analysis
  • mathematics achievement
  • motivation
  • self-regulated learning


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