We examined 115 middle-aged general/flag officers enrolled at the National Defense University. The cardiovascular fitness of the officers who did not smoke was within the 'excellent' category, based on national norms. The lipoprotein-lipid profiles of these officers were also more favorable than the reported population norms. Conversely, the fitness level and lipoprotein-lipid profiles of smokers were similar to those of sedentary controls. Since unfavorable lipoprotein-lipid profiles, smoking, and inactivity are considered major risk factors for developing coronary artery disease, the smokers in this study seem to be at greater risk for the development of atherosclerosis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health