LLG2/3 Are Co-receptors in BUPS/ANX-RALF Signaling to Regulate Arabidopsis Pollen Tube Integrity

Zengxiang Ge, Yuling Zhao, Ming Che Liu, Liang Zi Zhou, Lele Wang, Sheng Zhong, Saiying Hou, Jiahao Jiang, Tianxu Liu, Qingpei Huang, Junyu Xiao, Hongya Gu, Hen Ming Wu, Juan Dong, Thomas Dresselhaus, Alice Y. Cheung, Li Jia Qu

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56 Scopus citations


In angiosperms, two sperm cells are transported and delivered by the pollen tube to the ovule to achieve double fertilization. Extensive communication takes place between the pollen tube and the female tissues until the sperm cell cargo is ultimately released. During this process, a pollen tube surface-located receptor complex composed of ANXUR1/2 (ANX1/2) and Buddha's Paper Seal 1/2 (BUPS1/2) was reported to control the maintenance of pollen tube integrity by perceiving the autocrine peptide ligands rapid alkalinization factor 4 and 19 (RALF4/19). It was further hypothesized that pollen-tube rupture to release sperm is caused by the paracrine RALF34 peptide from the ovule interfering with this signaling pathway. In this study, we identified two Arabidopsis pollen-tube-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), LORELEI-like-GPI-anchored protein 2 (LLG2) and LLG3, as co-receptors in the BUPS-ANX receptor complex. llg2 llg3 double mutants exhibit severe fertility defects. Mutant pollen tubes rupture early during the pollination process. Furthermore, LLG2 and LLG3 interact with ectodomains of both BUPSs and ANXURs, and this interaction is remarkably enhanced by the presence of RALF4/19 peptides. We further demonstrate that the N terminus (including a YISY motif) of the RALF4 peptide ligand interacts strongly with BUPS-ANX receptors but weakly with LLGs and is essential for its biological function, and its C-terminal region is sufficient for LLG binding. In conclusion, we propose that LLG2/3 serve as co-receptors during BUPS/ANX-RALF signaling and thereby further establish the importance of GPI-APs as key regulators in plant reproduction processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3256-3265.e5
JournalCurrent Biology
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 7 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


  • Arabidopsis
  • GPI-AP
  • RALF
  • glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein
  • pollen tube
  • receptor-like kinase
  • signaling


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