Long-Term Neurocognitive, Mental Health Consequences of Contact Sports

Barry S Willer, Mohammad Nadir Haider, Charles Wilber, Carrie Esopenko, Michael Turner, John Leddy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This article presents a brief history and literature review of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional athletes that played contact sports. The hypothesis that CTE results from concussion or sub-concussive blows is based largely on several case series investigations with considerable bias. Evidence of CTE in its clinical presentation has not been generally noted in studies of living retired athletes. However, these studies also demonstrated limitation in research methodology. This paper aims to present a balanced perspective amidst a politically charged subject matter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)173-186
Number of pages14
JournalClinics in Sports Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021

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