Long-term outcomes of Shiga toxin hemolytic uremic syndrome

Joann M. Spinale, Rebecca L. Ruebner, Lawrence Copelovitch, Bernard S. Kaplan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

158 Scopus citations


Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The outcomes of STEC HUS have improved, and the acute mortality rate in children is 1-4 %. About 70 % of patients recover completely from the acute episode and the remainder have varying degrees of sequelae. Only a few retrospective studies have reviewed these patients over long periods. Methodological flaws include a lack of strict definitions, changing modes of treatment, ascertainment bias and loss of subjects to follow-up. The kidneys bear the brunt of the long-term damage: proteinuria (15-30 % of cases); hypertension (5-15 %); chronic kidney disease (CKD; 9-18 %); and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD; 3 %). A smaller number have extra-renal sequelae: colonic strictures, cholelithiasis, diabetes mellitus or brain injury. Most renal sequelae are minor abnormalities, such as treatable hypertension and/or variable proteinuria. Most of the patients who progress to ESKD do not recover normal renal function after the acute episode. Length of anuria (more than 10 days) and prolonged dialysis are the most important risk factors for a poor acute and long-term renal outcome. After the acute episode all patients must be followed for at least 5 years, and severely affected patients should be followed indefinitely if there is proteinuria, hypertension or a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2097-2105
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Nephrology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Nephrology


  • D+HUS
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome
  • Long-term outcomes
  • Prognosis STEC HUS


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