Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by low serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, and usually IgM. The central immune deficiency is impaired secretion of immunoglobulins and lack of antibody production; however, T cell dysfunction and a variety of inflammatory complications suggest global immune dysregulation. A number of reports have documented the association of primary immunodeficiency diseases with the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In CVID, the risk has been estimated to lie between 1.4% and 7%. As for NHL arising in other immunodeficiency states, the lymphomas in CVID are extranodal and are usually B cell in type. Of 22 B cell lymphomas that have appeared over a period of 25 years in a cohort of subjects with CVID, five lymphomas, appearing in more recently studied subjects, that arose in mucosal sites would be classified as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. MALT lymphomas are low-grade B cell lymphomas that result from a proliferation of neoplastic marginal-zone related cells of lymphoid tissue and tend to occur in organs that have acquired lymphoid tissue due to long-term infectious or autoimmune stimulation. Lymphomas of this kind have not been described in patients with congenital immunodeficiency, although chronic mucosal antigen stimulation is an integral part of these immune deficiency states.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)
- Immunodeficiency and lymphoma