Metastatic and triple-negative breast cancer: challenges and treatment options

Sumayah Al-Mahmood, Justin Sapiezynski, Olga B. Garbuzenko, Tamara Minko

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

334 Scopus citations


The major current conventional types of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treatments include surgery, radiation, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. Introducing biological drugs, targeted treatment and gene therapy can potentially reduce the mortality and improve the quality of life in patients with MBC. However, combination of several types of treatment is usually recommended. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10–20% of all cases of breast carcinoma and is characterized by the low expression of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ER), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Consequently, convenient treatments used for MBC that target these receptors are not effective for TNBC which therefore requires special treatment approaches. This review discusses the occurrence of MBC, the prognosis and predictive biomarkers of MBC, and focuses on the novel advanced tactics for treatment of MBC and TNBC. Nanotechnology-based combinatorial approach for the suppression of EGFR by siRNA and gifitinib is described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1483-1507
Number of pages25
JournalDrug Delivery and Translational Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science


  • Combinatorial treatment of breast cancer
  • EGFR
  • Gefitinib
  • Liposomes
  • siRNA


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