This mini-review aims to summarize a growing body of literature on synaptojanin 1 (Synj1), a phosphoinositide phosphatase that was initially known to have a prominent role in synaptic vesicle recycling. Synj1 is coded by the SYNJ1 gene, whose mutations and variants are associated with an increasing number of neurological disorders. To better understand the mechanistic role of Synj1 in disease pathogenesis, we review details of phosphoinositide signaling pathways and the reported involvement of Synj1 in membrane trafficking with a specific focus on Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have tremendously advanced our understanding of Synj1 protein structure and function while broadening our view of how Synj1 regulates synaptic membrane trafficking and endosomal trafficking in various organisms and cell types. A growing body of evidence points to inefficient membrane trafficking as key pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases associated with abnormal Synj1 expression. Despite significant progress made in the field, the mechanism by which Synj1 connects to trafficking, signaling, and pathogenesis is lacking and remains to be addressed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Membrane trafficking
- Neurodegenerative disease
- Synaptic vesicle recycling