Objective. Despite dramatic reductions in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in the United States, obstacles to perinatal HIV prevention that include lack of prenatal care; failure to test pregnant women for HIV before delivery; and lack of prenatal, intrapartum, or neonatal antiretroviral (ARV) use remain. The objective of this study was to describe trends in perinatal HIV prevention methods, perinatal transmission rates, and the contribution of missed opportunities for perinatal HIV prevention to perinatal HIV infection. Methods. We analyzed data obtained from infant medical records on 4755 HIV-exposed singleton deliveries in 1996-2000, from 6 US sites that participate in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Disease Project. HIV-exposed deliveries refer to deliveries in which the mother was known to have HIV infection during the pregnancy. Results. Of the 4287 women with data on prenatal care, 92% had prenatal care. From 1996 to 2000, among the 3925 women with prenatal care, 92% had an HIV test before delivery; the use of prenatal zidovudine (ZDV) alone decreased from 71% to 9%, and the use of prenatal ZDV with other ARVs increased from 6% to 70%. Complete data on maternal and neonatal ARVs were available for 3284 deliveries. Perinatal HIV transmission was 3% in 1651 deliveries with prenatal ZDV in combination with other ARVs, intrapartum ZDV, and neonatal ZDV; 6% in 1111 deliveries with prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal ZDV alone; 8% in 152 deliveries with intrapartum and neonatal ZDV alone; 14% of 73 deliveries with neonatal ZDV only started within 24 hours of birth; and 20% in 297 deliveries with no prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal ARVs. Complete data on prenatal events were available in 328 HIV-infected and 3258 HIV-uninfected infants. A total of 56% of mothers of HIV-infected infants had missed opportunities for perinatal HIV prevention versus 16% of mothers of HIV-uninfected infants. Forty-four percent of the infected infants were born to mothers who had prenatal care, a prenatal HIV diagnosis, and documented prenatal ARV therapy. Seventeen percent of women with reported illicit drug use had no prenatal care versus 3% of women with no reported drug use. In a multivariate analysis, maternal illicit drug use was significantly associated with lack of prenatal care. In a multivariate analysis, year of infant birth and the combination of lack of maternal HIV testing before delivery and lack of prenatal antiretroviral therapies were significantly associated with perinatal HIV transmission. Conclusions. Missed opportunities for perinatal HIV prevention contributed to more than half of the cases of HIV-infected infants. Prenatal care and HIV testing before delivery are major opportunities for perinatal HIV prevention. Illicit drug use was highly associated with lack of prenatal care, and lack of HIV testing before delivery was highly associated with perinatal HIV transmission.
|Number of pages
|Published - May 1 2003
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Missed opportunities for perinatal HIV prevention
- Pediatric HIV infection
- Perinatal HIV prevention