Modifying nation with nanostructured inorganic oxides for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

Yusuke Daiko, Lisa C. Klein, Masayuki Nogami

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Nafion, a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, was modified to increase its thermal stability and reduce its methanol permeability. Hybrid membranes of TiO 2-SiO2/Nafion and TiO2·SiO 2·P2O5/Nafion were prepared using an infiltration sol-gel method. Si(OC2H5)4 and Ti(OC4H9)4 were infiltrated into dry Nafion™ membranes, followed by hydrolysis and condensation reactions in first HCl and then NH4OH solutions. The level of inorganic content was controlled by the infiltration time, incorporating up to 50 wt%. Solvent uptake, swelling, water content and proton conductivity were measured at room temperature. Hybrid membranes of TiO2·SiO2/Nafion with ∼30 wt% of infiltrated oxides showed a significantly lower methanol uptake of ∼20wt% and a swelling ratio of 1.15, as compared to those of unmodified Nafion™ membrane, ∼60wt% for methanol uptake and 1.8 for swelling ratio. Proton conductivities for TiO2-SiO2/Nafion hybrid membranes decreased with increasing infiltrated oxides. However, infiltrated membranes treated in phosphoric acid solutions to increase the number of P-OH groups showed a six-fold increase in proton conductivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberS8.4
Pages (from-to)153-158
Number of pages6
JournalMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings
StatePublished - 2004
EventNanostructured Materials in Alternative Energy Devices - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Apr 13 2004Apr 15 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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