Molecular characterization of the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer

Minna Allinen, Rameen Beroukhim, Li Cai, Cameron Brennan, Jaana Lahti-Domenici, Haiyan Huang, Dale Porter, Min Hu, Lynda Chin, Andrea Richardson, Stuart Schnitt, William R. Sellers, Kornelia Polyak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1061 Scopus citations


Here we describe the comprehensive gene expression profiles of each cell type composing normal breast tissue and in situ and invasive breast carcinomas using serial analysis of gene expression. Based on these data, we determined that extensive gene expression changes occur in all cell types during cancer progression and that a significant fraction of altered genes encode secreted proteins and receptors. Despite the dramatic gene expression changes in all cell types, genetic alterations were detected only in cancer epithelial cells. The CXCL14 and CXCL12 chemokines overexpressed in tumor myoepithelial cells and myofibroblasts, respectively, bind to receptors on epithelial cells and enhance their proliferation, migration, and invasion. Thus, chemokines may play a role in breast tumorigenesis by acting as paracrine factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-32
Number of pages16
JournalCancer Cell
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2004
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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