Monckeberg’s Medial Sclerosis as a Cause for Headache and Facial Pain

Davis C. Thomas, Prisly Thomas, Anilkumar Sivan, Priyanka Unnam, Ahana Ajayakumar, Sanjana Santhosh Kumar, Priyanka Kodaganallur Pitchumani, Mahnaz Fatahzadeh, Nida e.Haque Mahmud

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Mönckeberg’s medial sclerosis (MMS) is a chronic, non-inflammatory degenerative condition affecting primarily the tunica media of muscular arteries resulting in their calcification. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to describe MMS as it appears in the literature, in the context of headache and facial pain. Understanding the etiopathology, the associated conditions, and the differential diagnoses is important in managing MMS. Recent Findings: Management of MMS primarily depends upon identification of its associated conditions and their treatment. Due to the rare incidence and inadequate literature on MMS presenting with headaches, the diagnosis of the pain and the entity itself is challenging. Summary: MMS is characterized by associated systemic conditions and absence of inflammatory markers. It can mimic giant cell arteritis (GCA) and other pain entities. An interdisciplinary approach involving appropriate specialties is recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number50
JournalCurrent Pain and Headache Reports
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Artery biopsy
  • Imaging
  • Monckeberg’s medial calcific sclerosis
  • Monckeberg’s medial sclerosis (MMS)
  • Secondary headache


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