Monetary unit sampling: A belief-function implementation for audit and accounting applications

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Audit procedures may be planned and audit evidence evaluated using monetary unit sampling (MUS) techniques within the context of the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions. This article shows: (1) how to determine an appropriate sample size for MUS in order to obtain a desired degree of belief that the upper bound for misstatements lies within a given interval; and (2) what level of belief in a specified interval is obtained given a sample result. The results are consistent with the view that a specified level of belief in an interval is semantically a stronger claim than the same numerical level of probability. The paper describes two variants of MUS in both probability and belief-function forms, emphasizing the systematic similarities and the numerical differences between the two frameworks. The results, based on the Poisson distribution, extend results already available for mean-per-unit variables sampling, and may readily be developed to give similar results for the binomial distribution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-70
Number of pages28
JournalInternational Journal of Approximate Reasoning
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Applied Mathematics


  • Auditing
  • Belief functions
  • Monetary unit sampling


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