Synopsis: Nanotechnology is one of the most active research areas that encompasses a number of disciplines including civil engineering and construction materials. The most active fields are electronics, biomechanics, and coatings. Interest in nanotechnology concept for portland-cement composites is steadily growing. Currently, the most active research areas dealing with cement and concrete are: understanding of the hydration of cement particles and the use of nano-size ingredients such as alumina and silica particles. There are also a limited number of investigations dealing with the manufacture of nanocement. If cement with nano-size particles can be manufactured and processed, it will open up a large number of opportunities in the fields of ceramics, high-strength composites, and electronic applications. This will elevate the status of portland cement to a high-tech material in addition to its current status of the most widely used construction material. Very few inorganic cementing materials can match the capabilities of portland cement in terms of cost and availability. The main objective of this paper is to outline promising research areas. Basic background information on nanotechnology research, state of the art on use of this technology in concrete, opportunities, and challenges are discussed.