Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) expressed at the membrane of the kidney proximal tubule cells mediates the body disposition of a diverse array of clinically important drugs, including anti-HIV therapeutics, antitumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and antiinflammatories. Therefore, understanding the regulation of hOAT1 will provide significant insights into kidney function and dysfunction. We previously established that hOAT1 transport activity is inhibited by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) through accelerating hOAT1 internalization from cell surface into intracellular endosomes and subsequent degradation. We further established that PKC-induced hOAT1 ubiquitination is an important step preceding hOAT1 internalization. In the current study, we identified two closely related E3 ubiquitin ligases, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-1 and 4-2 (Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2), as important regulators for hOAT1: overexpression of Nedd4-1 or Nedd4-2 enhanced hOAT1 ubiquitination, reduced the hOAT1 amount at the cell surface, and suppressed hOAT1 transport activity. In further exploring the relationship among PKC, Nedd4-1, and Nedd4-2, we discovered that PKC-dependent changes in hOAT1 ubiquitination, expression, and transport activity were significantly blocked in cells transfected with the ligase-dead mutant of Nedd4-2 (Nedd4-2/C821A) or with Nedd4-2-specific siRNA to knockdown endogenous Nedd4-2 but not in cells transfected with the ligase-dead mutant of Nedd4-1 (Nedd4-1/C867S) or with Nedd4-1-specific siRNA to knockdown endogenous Nedd4-1. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that both Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2 are important regulators for hOAT1 ubiquitination, expression, and function. Yet they play distinct roles, as Nedd4-2 but not Nedd4-1 is a critical mediator for PKC-regulated hOAT1 ubiquitination, expression, and transport activity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Drug transport
- Organic anion transporter
- Ubiquitin ligase