Background: The effect of neighborhood and healthcare access factors on cancer outcomes among patients enrolled in navigator programs is not clearly understood. This study assessed associations between: (i) neighborhood factors and diagnostic time to resolution (TTR) and (ii) geographic access and TTR following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test among women participating in the Ohio Patient Navigator Research Program (OPNRP).
Methods: Patient (demographic, socioeconomic status, home-to-clinic distance) and neighborhood (deprivation, racial segregation) characteristics of 801 women living in one of 285 census tracts (CT) in greater Columbus, Ohio were examined. Randomization to receive navigation occurred at the clinic level. Multilevel Cox regression and spatial analysis were used to estimate effects of various factors on TTR and assess model assumptions, respectively.
Results: TTR increased as neighborhood deprivation increased. After adjustment for age, friend social support, education, and healthcare status, the TTR among women living in a neighborhood with a moderate median household income (between $36,147 and $53,099) was shorter compared with women living in low median household income neighborhoods (<$36,147; P < 0.05). There is little evidence that unmeasured confounders are geographically patterned.
Conclusions: Increased neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with longer TTR following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test.
Impact: These results highlight the need for addressing patient- and neighborhood-level factors to reduce cancer disparities among underserved populations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes