Neovascular age-related macular degeneration: Therapeutic management and new-upcoming approaches

Federico Ricci, Francesco Bandello, Pierluigi Navarra, Giovanni Staurenghi, Michael Stumpp, Marco Zarbin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) constitutes a prevalent, chronic, and progressive retinal degenerative disease of the macula that affects elderly people and cause central vision impairment. Despite therapeutic advances in the management of neovascular AMD, none of the currently used treatments cures the disease or reverses its course. Medical treatment of neovascular AMD experienced a significant advance due to the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGF), which dramatically changed the prognosis of the disease. However, although anti-VEGF therapy has become the standard treatment for neovascular AMD, many patients do not respond adequately to this therapy or experience a slow loss of efficacy of anti-VEGF agents after repeated administration. Additionally, current treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents is associated with a significant treatment burden for patients, caregivers, and physicians. New approaches have been proposed for treating neovascular AMD. Among them, designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) seem to be as effective as monthly ranibizumab, but with greater durability, which may enhance patient compliance with needed injections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8242
Pages (from-to)1-40
Number of pages40
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Ang-2
  • Anti-VEGF
  • DARPins
  • Neovascular AMD
  • Neovascularization
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor


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