Nitroglycerin-induced S-nitrosylation and desensitization of soluble guanylyl cyclase contribute to nitrate tolerance

Nazish Sayed, David D. Kim, Xavier Fioramonti, Toru Iwahashi, Walter N. Durán, Annie Beuve

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Scopus citations


Nitrates such as nitroglycerin (GTN) and nitric oxide donors such as S-nitrosothiols are clinically vasoactive through stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cGMP. Development of nitrate tolerance, after exposure to GTN for several hours, is a major drawback to a widely used cardiovascular therapy. We recently showed that exposure to nitric oxide and to S-nitrosothiols causes S-nitrosylation of sGC, which directly desensitizes sGC to stimulation by nitric oxide. We tested the hypothesis that desensitization of sGC by S-nitrosylation is a mechanism of nitrate tolerance. Our results established that vascular tolerance to nitrates can be recapitulated in vivo by S-nitrosylation through exposure to cell membrane-permeable S-nitrosothiols and that sGC is S-nitrosylated and desensitized in the tolerant, treated tissues. We next determined that (1) GTN treatment of primary aortic smooth muscle cells induces S-nitrosylation of sGC and its desensitization as a function of GTN concentration; (2) S-nitrosylation and desensitization are prevented by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine, a precursor of glutathione, used clinically to prevent development of nitrate tolerance; and (3) S-nitrosylation and desensitization are reversed by cessation of GTN treatment. Finally, we demonstrated that in vivo development of nitrate tolerance and crosstolerance by 3-day chronic GTN treatment correlates with S-nitrosylation and desensitization of sGC in tolerant tissues. These results suggest that in vivo nitrate tolerance is mediated, in part, by desensitization of sGC through GTN-dependent S-nitrosylation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)606-614
Number of pages9
JournalCirculation research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 12 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


  • CGMP
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nitrosation
  • S-nitrosothiols
  • Vascular tolerance


Dive into the research topics of 'Nitroglycerin-induced S-nitrosylation and desensitization of soluble guanylyl cyclase contribute to nitrate tolerance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this