Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers in surface seawater of the West Pacific

Kaiyan Xiao, Zhibo Lu, Chao Yang, Song Zhao, Hongyuan Zheng, Yuan Gao, Chalapan Kaluwin, Yanguang Liu, Minghong Cai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Twenty-eight samples of surface seawater were collected from the West Pacific Ocean during 2019 using a high-volume solid-phase extraction with high-throughput organic analysis (Hi-throat/Hi-volume SPE) method, and concentrations of 10 organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (OPEs) were determined. The total OPE concentration in the samples was 3.02–48.4 ng L−1 (mean 25.0 ± 10.5 ng L−1), with tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) being the largest contributor. Cluster analysis results showed off-shore input from the coast of East and Southeast Asia was an important source of these chemicals. Tri-p-tolyl phosphate (TpTP) should also be considered for long-term monitoring, because of its high detection frequency. Results of a risk assessment indicated low ecological risk to species in the West Pacific Ocean for TPhP and ΣOPEs. Hazard quotients (HQs) were all <1, indicating that the health risk to humans from these chemicals was at acceptable levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number112691
JournalMarine Pollution Bulletin
Volume170
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Pollution

Keywords

  • High-volume solid-phase extraction with high-throughput organic analysis method
  • Organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers
  • Risk
  • The West Pacific Ocean

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