Occurrence, Formation, Stability, and Interaction of 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone

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4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF), one of the most important volatile compounds from the 3(2H)-furanone family, makes vitally important contributions to aromas related to various foods. Because of the relatively low threshold itself, HDMF is especially considered as a potent aroma compound and greatly appreciated by the food industry. Substantial progress has been made to elucidate its formation pathways both in natural fruits and in thermal processes with respect to biosynthesis and the Maillard reaction, respectively. Interaction with sulfur-containing amino acids also generates characteristic meaty flavors. HDMF easily reacts with other compounds in food systems, being affected by parameters under different conditions and showing strong antioxidant activities. Nevertheless, unstable properties may also make its evolution possible in various and complex reaction cascades, leading to different key aroma compounds. This review is based on the sensory significance of HDMF to discuss its formations, stability, and interactions in flavor generation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)292-303
Number of pages12
JournalACS Food Science and Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 16 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Organic Chemistry


  • DMHF
  • Maillard reaction
  • biosynthesis
  • flavor
  • furanone


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