Optimization of tire tread pattern based on flow characteristics to improve hydroplaning resistance

Haichao Zhou, Zhen Jiang, Baiyu Jiang, Hao Wang, Guolin Wang, Hao Qian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Tire tread pattern is a crucial parameter to prevent hydroplaning. In this study, numerical modeling was used to investigate tire hydroplaning based on flow–structure interaction. The empirical model of hydroplaning speed published in the literature was used to validate the computational model. Analysis of water flow velocity and turbulent flow energy revealed that lateral grooves of the tire significantly influenced water drainage capacity. Based on the relationship between water flow vector and lateral groove shape, a combination of Kriging surrogate model and simulated annealing algorithm was used to optimize lateral groove design to minimize hydrodynamic lift force. Four geometry parameters of lateral grooves were selected as the design variables. Based on design of experiment principle, 12 simulation cases based on the optimal Latin hypercube design method were used to analyze the influence of design variables on hydrodynamic lift force. The surrogate model was optimized by the simulated annealing algorithm to optimize tire tread pattern. The results indicated that at the same water flow speed, the optimized lateral grooves can reduce hydrodynamic lift force by 14.05% and thus greatly improve safety performance of the tire. This study proves the validity and applicability of using numerical modeling for solving the complex design of tire tread pattern and optimization problem.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2961-2974
Number of pages14
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Issue number13
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


  • Kriging surrogate model
  • Tire hydroplaning
  • flow field characteristics
  • numerical simulation
  • tread optimization


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