Purpose: Previous studies have suggested an important role of aberrant arachidonic acid metabolism, especially the cyclooxygenase (Cox) pathway, in oral carcinogenesis. However, it is unknown whether the 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) pathway contributes to oral carcinogenesis, and whether combination of inhibitors of both pathways may have synergistic or additive effects of chemoprevention. Experimental Design: 5-Lox expression was examined in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster and human oral cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry, and Cox2 expression was investigated in hamster oral tissues using in situ hybridization. Zileuton (a specific 5-Lox inhibitor) and celecoxib (a specific Cox2 inhibitor), either alone or in combination, were investigated for their chemopreventive effects on the DMBA-induced hamster model at the post-initiation stage through topical application. Results: 5-Lox was overexpressed during oral carcinogenesis in hamsters and humans, as well as Cox2 in the hamster tissues. In a chemoprevention study using the post-initiation DMBA model, incidence of hamster oral squamous cell carcinoma was reduced from 76.9% (20 of 26) to 45.8% (11 of 24, P < 0.05) and 32.1% (9 of 28, P < 0.01) by 3% and 6% topical zileuton, respectively; and to 57.6% (15 of 26, P > 0.05) and 50% (12 of 24, P < 0.05) by 3% and 6% topical celecoxib, respectively. When used in combination, celecoxib and zileuton (3% of each) had an additive inhibitory effect on the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (36%, 9 of 25, P < 0.01). Other pathologic variables and the levels of leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 of the hamster tissues were reduced as well. Conclusions: The results clearly showed that both 5-Lox and Cox2 played important roles in oral carcinogenesis. Zileuton and celecoxib prevented oral carcinogenesis at the post-initiation stage through their inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research