Background: Primates exhibit substantial capacity for behavioral innovation, expanding the diversity of their behavioral repertoires, and benefiting both individual survival and species development in evolution. Novel object exploration is an integral part of behavioral innovation. Thus, qualitative and quantitative analysis of novel object exploration helps to better understand behavioral innovation. Methods: To study the pattern of novel object exploration, two different sized balls were sequentially introduced to singly caged cynomolgus monkeys. Two aspects of monkeys’ behaviors were analyzed: the types of motor activities in toy playing and whether there is an orderly sequence of such motor activities during novelty exploration. Results: Four types of behavioral activities (oral contact, gross and fine forelimb motor, and hind limb motor) followed a pattern: first forelimb gross motor and oral contact, followed by forelimb fine motor and hind limb activities. Oral contact appeared to be an important behavior in monkeys’ repertoire of novelty exploratory behaviors, both as an early appearing activity, and showing a consistent pattern of high cumulative time for two different novel objects. Conclusions: These results provide a profile of novel object exploratory behaviors in cynomolgus monkeys, contributing to a better understanding of this aspect of behavioral innovation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Animal Science and Zoology
- cynomolgus monkey
- non-human primate
- novel object exploration