MEK inhibition is of interest in cancer drug development, but clinical activity in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been limited. Preclinical studies demonstrated Wnt pathway overexpression in KRAS-mutant cell lines resistant to the MEK inhibitor, selumetinib. The combination of selumetinib and cyclosporin A, a noncanonical Wnt pathway modulator, demonstrated antitumor activity in mCRC patient-derived xenografts. To translate these results, we conducted a NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program–approved multicenter phase I/IB trial (NCT02188264) of the combination of selumetinib and cyclosporin A. Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with the combination of oral selumetinib and cyclosporin A in the dose escalation phase, followed by an expansion cohort of irinotecan and oxaliplatin-refractory mCRC. The expansion cohort utilized a single-agent selumetinib "run-in" to evaluate FZD2 biomarker upregulation and KRAS-WT and KRAS-MT stratification to identify any potential predictors of efficacy. Twenty and 19 patients were enrolled in dose escalation and expan-
sion phases, respectively. The most common adverse events and grade 3/4 toxicities were rash, hypertension, and edema. Three dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 hypertension, rash, and increased creatinine) were reported. The MTD was selumetinib 75 mg twice daily and cyclosporin A 2 mg/kg twice daily on a 28-day cycle. KRAS stratification did not identify any differences in response between KRAS-WT and KRAS-MT cancers. Two partial responses, 18 stable disease, and 10 progressive disease responses were observed. Combination selumetinib and cyclosporin A is well tolerated, with evidence of activity in mCRC. Future strategies for concept development include identifying better predictors of efficacy and improved Wnt pathway modulation. Significance: These findings translate preclinical studies combining selumetinib and cyclosporin into a phase I first-in-human clinical trial of such a combination in patients with advanced solid malignancies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research