Objective To conduct a phase II trial of the combination of carboplatin, prednisone, and everolimus in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) as mTOR inhibition can overcome resistance to chemotherapy in prostate cancer. Methods Patients with progressive mCRPC pretreated with docetaxel-based regimen were eligible. Performance status of 0-1 and adequate bone marrow, renal, and liver function were required. Primary end point was time to progression. Treatment consisted of carboplatin (starting dose equal to area under the curve (AUC of 5) intravenously every 21 days along with oral everolimus 5 mg once daily and prednisone 5 mg twice daily. Results Twenty-six patients were enrolled with median age of 69 years with 8 patients of African American origin. Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia or neutropenia in 4 of 6 initial patients required dose adjustment of carboplatin to AUC of 4 for subsequent patients. There were no pharmacokinetic interactions between carboplatin and everolimus. The median time to progression was 2.5 months (90% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-4.3 months), and median overall survival was 12.5 months (90% CI, 7.7-18.7 months). Of 10 patients, 8 that demonstrated positive nuclear phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) staining on immunohistochemistry progressed within 9 weeks, whereas 2 patients with negative staining continued without progression for prolonged durations of 30 and 48 weeks. TSC1 gene mutations did not correlate with clinical outcome. Conclusion The addition of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus to carboplatin demonstrated minimal clinical efficacy in metastatic prostate cancer. pAKT testing warrants further evaluation as a predictive marker of response to everolimus therapy.
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