BACKGROUND: Salvage external beam radiotherapy (RT) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves survival over RT in men with prostate cancer (PC) and rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after radical prostatectomy (RP). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of enzalutamide concurrent with salvage RT and ADT. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a three-center prospective phase 2 single-arm trial (NCT02057939) of men with Gleason 7-10 PC and PSA recurrence within 4 yr of RP ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 ng/dl, no prior hormonal therapy, and no radiographic evidence of metastases. We enrolled 38 men; 37 completed therapy and were evaluable with testosterone recovery at 2 yr. INTERVENTION: Six months of ADT with 160 mg/d enzalutamide and 66 Gy RT to the prostate bed. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary endpoint was improved 2-yr progression-free survival (PFS) over historical controls. Secondary objectives included 3-yr PFS, safety, and patient-reported quality of life (QOL). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The primary endpoint of 2-yr PFS was 65% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 47, 78) versus 51% (95% CI: 33, 67) in a trial of men with similar eligibility treated with salvage RT and adjuvant docetaxel. The 3-yr PFS was 53%. Eleven (29%) men experienced G3 toxicities, and there were no G4-5 or unexpected toxicities. QOL data suggest modest worsening of bowel, bladder, and hormonal symptoms at 3 mo, with recovery by 24 mo in most men. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage RT with enzalutamide and ADT following RP for men with PSA recurrent high-risk PC is safe and demonstrates encouraging efficacy, warranting prospective controlled phase 3 trials of ADT with or without potent androgen receptor inhibition in this curative-intent setting. PATIENT SUMMARY: Addition of 6 mo of oral daily enzalutamide to standard salvage radiation and hormone therapy is safe and may improve prostate cancer remission rates at 2 and 3 yr.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Hormonal therapy
- Prostate cancer
- Salvage radiation