Invited Review: Physiological and pathophysiological responses to intermittent hypoxia. J Appl Physiol 90: 1593-1599, 2001.-This mini-review summarizes the physiological adaptations to and pathophysiological consequences of intermittent hypoxia with special emphasis given to the pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Intermittent hypoxia is an effective stimulus for evoking the respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic adaptations normally associated with continuous chronic hypoxia. These adaptations are thought by some to be beneficial in that they may provide protection against disease as well as improve exercise performance in athletes. The long-term consequences of chronic intermittent hypoxia may have detrimental effects, including hypertension, cerebral and coronary vascular problems, developmental and neurocognitive deficits, and neurodegeneration due to the cumulative effects of persistent bouts of hypoxia. Emphasis is placed on reviewing the available data on intermittent hypoxia, making extensions from applicable information from acute and chronic hypoxia studies, and pointing out major gaps in information linking the genomic and cellular responses to intermittent hypoxia with physiological or pathophysiological responses.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)
- Episodic hypoxia
- Hypoxic training
- Obstructive sleep apnea