Plan to be flexible: A commentary on adaptive designs

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This is a discussion of the following three papers appearing in this special issue on adaptive designs: 'Nested repeated confidence intervals and switching between noninferiority and superiority' by Joachim Hartung and Guido Knapp; 'Confirmatory Seamless Phase II/III Clinical trials with Hypotheses Selection at Interim: General Concepts' by Frank Bretz, Heinz Schmidli, Franz König, Amy Racine and Willi Maurer; and 'Confirmatory Seamless Phase II/III Clinical Trials with Hypotheses Selection at Interim: Applications and Practical Considerations' by Heinz Schmidli, Frank Bretz, Amy Racine and Willi Maurer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)656-659
Number of pages4
JournalBiometrical Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


  • Adaptive planning
  • Adaptive seamless design
  • Adaptive tests
  • Closure principle
  • Combination tests
  • Early stopping
  • Group sequential clinical trials
  • Hypotheses selection
  • Multiple testing
  • Noninferiority
  • Repeated confidence intervals
  • Self-designing


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