Predictors for Discontinuation of Intrauterine Devices That Underwent Ultrasound-Guided Placement in a Long-term Follow-up Cohort

Adrian Balica, Kaitlyn M. Dickson, Susan Egan, Javier Cabrera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives: To investigate long-term outcomes of ultrasound-guided intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. The rate of and reasons for IUD discontinuation were reviewed, including the prevalence of uterine fibroids. Methods: A retrospective cohort of patients who underwent transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS)-guided IUD insertion was reviewed. Information collected included age, body mass index, insertion date, indication for IUD use, indication for using TAUS guidance, and presence of uterine fibroids. The date of and reason for discontinuation were recorded. Results: One hundred sixteen patients with successful TAUS-guided IUD placement were identified. Of these, 51 patients (43.97%) no longer had an IUD in place. An overall actual-to-expected use ratio was calculated to be 63.49%. The most common reason for IUD discontinuation was spontaneous expulsion (11.21%). The prevalence of fibroid uteri was 27.6% in our cohort. The actual-to-expected use ratio of those with a fibroid uterus was calculated to be 43.28%, which was significantly lower than that for a nonfibroid uterus (73.80%; P =.002). There were 27 of 104 patients with IUD use of less than 1 year, and fibroids were present 44.4% of the time. Comparatively, of the 77 patients that had IUD continuation of greater than 1 year, only 24.7% had fibroids (P =.022). The yearly continuation rates over 5 years were 74.04%, 55.84%, 41.67%, 35.14%, and 32.0% respectively. Of the 18 patients who received TAUS-guided insertion for a previous IUD expulsion, 33.3% had another spontaneous expulsion. Conclusions: Uterine fibroids and a previous expulsion appear to be the most likely predictors of IUD discontinuation, particularly within 1 year after insertion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2115-2122
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


  • intrauterine device
  • transabdominal ultrasound
  • ultrasound


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